Why Was Jacob’s Name Changed to Israel and What Is Its Significance?

Jacob’s name was changed to Israel. Perhaps you are familiar with the story. But, in case you are not, I will tell it to you.

God appeared to Jacob as he came from Paddan-aram and blessed him. God said that his name was Jacob, but Jacob should not be his name any longer. From now on, his name should be Israel. God told Jacob that his own name was God Almighty (El Shaddai). God Almighty then commanded Jacob to be fruitful and multiply. He told Jacob that a nation and a company of nations as well as kings would come from him. God Almighty was going to give Jacob and his offspring the land that he gave to Abraham and Isaac. So, Jacob set up a pillar of stone and poured a drink offering and oil on the pillar of stone. Jacob called the place Bethel.

Is that the story you were expecting to hear?

Probably not.

You were probably expecting to me to tell you how Jacob sent his family across the Jabbok stream, but Jacob stayed alone on the other side of the stream. During the night, he wrestled with a man until day broke. The man was not able to prevail against Jacob so he put Jacob’s hip out of joint. The man asked Jacob to let him go, but Jacob said he wouldn’t let the man go until he blessed him. The man asked Jacob his name. When the man was told it was Jacob, the man said that he would no longer be called Jacob but Israel, since he had striven with God and men and prevailed. Jacob asked the man his name, but the man did not tell Jacob. The man merely asked Jacob why he wanted to know. So, Jacob called the place Peniel because he had seen God face to face and lived. The sun came up on Jacob as he passed Penuel. Therefore, the people of Israel do not eat the sinew of the thigh on the hip socket.

If you are familiar with the story of Jacob’s name being changed to Israel, then that is most likely the story you are familiar with. But, this story is completely different in every way than the first one I told. The first account in this post is from Genesis 35.9-15. The second account, the more familiar one, is from Genesis 32.22-32.

What is going on here?

Why are there two completely different accounts about the changing of Jacob’s name to Israel in the Bible?

Both accounts are from the book of Genesis. In fact, these accounts are just a few pages apart in the modern Bible.

Did Moses forget what he wrote in the first one when he wrote the second one?

Or, did Moses not write either account?

After reading Who Wrote the Bible? by Richard Elliot Friedman at the end of last year, I have come to believe that Moses did not actually write either account. In fact, Moses most likely did not write any of the first five books of the Bible, at least in the form that we have them.

In Who Wrote the Bible?, Friedman persuasively shows that there were actually four writers of the first five books of the Bible. This is commonly known as the JEPD theory. The letters JEPD stand for the “identity” of the four writers. Based on a combination of textual, linguistic, historical, and archaeological data, scholars have been able to identify four (at least) separate writers of the first five books of the Bible as well as which particular parts of those five books they wrote. I will summarize the identity of the four writers according to Friedman below.

The J stands for Jehovah. This writer only referred to God as Yahweh, or Jehovah, and therefore the letter “J” is used to identify him. This writer was someone particularly concerned with the kingdom of Judah. He focused on the patriarchs, the Abrahamic covenant, and the family of David.

The E stands for Elohim. This writer always referred to God as Elohim. That is, until Moses saw God in the burning bush and God told him that his name was I Am That I Am, or Yahweh. This writer was likely a Levite priest from Shiloh and a descendant of Moses. Unlike the J writer, the E writer emphasized the Mosaic covenant.

The P stands for Priest. Like the E writer, this writer likely was a priest too. However, the P writer most likely descended from Aaron and lived in Jerusalem. The P writer most likely wrote after the J and E writers. The P writer follows the same stories in the same order but retells the stories in a different way to emphasize the Aaronic priesthood in Jerusalem. In fact, the P writer distinguishes between the priests, who were from Aaron, and the Levites.

The D stands for Deuteronomist. The D writer wove the writings of J, E, and P together and wrote the entire book of Deuteronomy. That’s all I will say about the D writer because the D writer does not factor all that much in to Jacob’s name change for the purposes of this post.

In Who Wrote the Bible?, Friedman shows that each of these writers retold the history of Israel from a specific perspective. And, that retelling was crafted in a way to add credibility, weight, gravitas, to the kingdom – the northern or southern, Israel or Judah – they were from or their class of the priesthood.

So, about those two completely different stories of Jacob’s name being changed to Israel…

The account in Genesis 32.22-32, the more familiar account of Jacob wrestling with an unidentified man, was written by the E writer. The less well-known, certainly the less talked about, account in Genesis 35.9-15 was written by the P writer. We know this because of how the stories were told.

The P writer only has priests as the intermediary between God and man. The P writer never mentions angels. He never uses anthropomorphisms, dreams, or talking animals to reveal God. The accounts of the P writer tend to be shorter and more matter of fact. For the P writer, God is more cosmic and distant. This is exactly how the story of Jacob’s name change is told in Genesis 35.9-15.

Yet, the account in Genesis 32.22-32 has a mysterious, unidentified man wrestle with Jacob. Jacob believed this person to be God in some way. The E writer anthropomorphized God in his retelling of the story. God is more personal for the E writer in that Jacob believed he wrestled God in hand-to-hand combat and Jacob declared that he saw God face to face.

But, why two different accounts retold in two different ways?

What was the significance of these stories to these two writers?

Ultimately, these stories were about how Jacob/Israel received not just a blessing from God but the blessing of God. Therefore, the E and P writers were trying to lay claim to the blessing God gave Abraham for their kingdom/priesthood. You know…the blessing where God told Abraham that “I will make of you a great nation” (Genesis 12.2), “in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed” (Genesis 12.3), and “to your offspring I will give this land” (Genesis 12.7).

Remember, the E writer wrote from the perspective of the northern kingdom, Israel, and the Levites that descended from Moses. But, the P writer wrote from the perspective of the southern kingdom, Judah, and the descendants of Aaron. Hence, the P writer was more focused on Jerusalem, which was ultimately the capital of the southern kingdom, Judah.

Interestingly, the J writer records nothing about Jacob’s name being changed to Israel. But, that doesn’t mean the J writer had nothing to say about how Jacob got the blessing. The J writer told how Jacob got the blessing when Jacob tricked or deceived (some would say stole) Esau out of his birthright (Genesis 25.29-34 and 27.1-45).

Why would the J writer recount Jacob instead of Esau receiving the blessing given originally to Abraham this way?

Why would the J writer portray Jacob in a negative light?

Remember, the J writer wrote from the perspective of the kingdom of Judah and the family of David. Judah sat between Israel and Edom, the kingdom that came from Esau. Israel was to the north while Edom was to the south of Judah. At one time, David had conquered Edom and effectively made it part of the kingdom of Judah. But, Jacob was more associated with the northern kingdom of Israel. John 4.4-6 says, “And he had to pass through Samaria. So he came to a town of Samaria called Sychar, near the field that Jacob had given to his son Joseph. Jacob’s well was there.” This is why the Samaritan woman (Samaria being synonymous with the northern kingdom of Israel) at the well said to Jesus, “Sir, you have nothing to draw water with, and the well is deep. Where do you get that living water? Are you greater than our father Jacob? He gave us the well and drank from it himself, as did his sons and his livestock.” (John 4.11-12)

In a subtle way, the J writer was saying that the northern kingdom, Israel, which was closely associated with Jacob, could only lay claim to Abraham’s blessing from God because Jacob tricked Esau and deceived Isaac into giving it to him. But, Judah, the kingdom of David, could lay claim to that blessing because David defeated Edom, the kingdom of Esau. Further, David had conquered lands in the northern kingdom too. Therefore, David, and consequently Judah, had a much more legitimate claim to the blessing of Abraham.

However, the E writer was laying claim to the blessing for the northern kingdom, Israel. In the E writer’s account of Jacob’s name change to Israel, Jacob says to the unidentified man, “I will not let you go until you bless me.” (Genesis 32.26) Jacob believed he received that blessing because wrestled and prevailed against this unidentified man. Even though Jacob never gets the man’s name, he calls the name of the place Peniel. “For I have seen God face to face, and yet my life has been delivered.” (Genesis 32.30) Peniel, or Penuel, was in the northern kingdom, almost due east of Shechem. It was in the tribe of Gad, which meant it was on the east side of Jordan. So, the city that the E writer mentions as important was in the northern kingdom.

But, interestingly, it was not a city of religious importance in the northern kingdom. It was not Dan or Bethel, which were the cities Jeroboam set up as religious centers of worship. Nor did the writer mention Shiloh, which was in the northern kingdom and one of the resting places for the tabernacle. Nor was it one of the three cities that Samuel went to on his circuit of judging. Remember, the E writer is writing from the perspective of a Levite priest descended from Moses in the northern kingdom of Israel. This priest likely favored the northern kingdom politically but not religiously. Politically, because the northern kingdom did not have the place of centralized worship (Jerusalem) that the Aaronic priesthood had control over in Judah. Not religiously, because Jeroboam had set up his own priesthood passing over the Levites. Hence, the E writer associated a city that was in the northern kingdom but not a city of worship in that kingdom to the Jacob’s name change.

The E writer’s account also alludes to Moses because Jacob says he saw God face to face. There is only one other person in the first five books of the Bible that saw God face to face and that was Moses. But, unlike Jacob, Moses got the name of God when he encountered God. Therefore, Moses had more importance than Jacob. So, we can see the elements of the E writer’s story of Jacob’s name change to Israel fit with a Levite in the line of Moses in the northern kingdom trying to lay claim to Abraham’s blessing from God.

The elements of the story in the P account try to lay claim to that blessing too. The P writer does it more blatantly though. In his account, Jacob doesn’t ask for a blessing in a subtle allusion to Abraham’s blessing by God. In the P account, God tells Jacob, “Be fruitful and multiply. A nation and a company of nations shall come from you, and kings shall come from your own body.” (Genesis 35.11) This story is very much about who really has the blessing God gave Abraham. In fact, God gave Jacob the same commission he gave to Adam and the patriarchs.

For the P writer, who has claim to that blessing has to do with worship, which is why the P writer’s account has “Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he [God] had spoke with him, a pillar of stone. He [Jacob] poured out a drink offering on it and poured oil on it.” (Genesis 35.14) Jacob called the place Bethel. Yes, Bethel was one of the places Jeroboam put a center of worship in the northern kingdom. But, it was on the border of the kingdom of Israel and Judah. Technically, Bethel was in Benjamin. And, at one point had been conquered by David. Plus, when Assyria conquered the northern kingdom of Israel, it did not capture Bethel, which became a part of Judah. Hence, the P writer could be seen as laying claim to Bethel for the kingdom of Judah.

Further, in the P writer’s account, Jacob does get the name of God. God identifies himself to Jacob as God Almighty, or El Shaddai. Psalm 91 speaks of the shadow of Shaddai. This shadow was under the wings of the cherubim in the most holy place of the temple. Psalm 91 was written by David, which would please the P writer since David was from Judah. Further, only a priest from the line of Aaron was allowed to enter the most holy place because the high priest always came from the descendants of Aaron. Therefore, the P writer is emphasizing that Jerusalem, Judah, and the Aaronic priesthood have the best claim to the God’s blessing of Abraham because Jerusalem was the place of centralized worship. That is perhaps why the name El Shaddai is mentioned in this account of Jacob’s name change to Israel as an attempt by a priest of Aaron in Jerusalem to lay claim to the the blessing of Abraham.

There is so much more that could be said about the different accounts of how Jacob became the heir of the blessing of Abraham and his name change to Israel. Clearly, it is not what appears to us on the surface thousands of years later. And, we haven’t even spoken of the wrestling (the Hebrew word is used only in this story) between Jacob and the unidentified man or the strange saying about not eating the sinew from the hip because Jacob’s hip was put of socket in the wrestling match.

But, does any of the underlying political and theological intrigue that motivated these writers even matter to us today?

What significance does any of this have for us?

Is it even important to us what this may have meant to the original writers and hearers?

Does the “plain” meaning, if there even is one, matter to us today?

Or, is there an inspired meaning to Jacob’s name change to Israel, a meaning beyond what the original writers intended, that is just as important today as ever?

Ultimately, what matters to us is that Jesus is true Israel – not a certain ethnic group of people or certain small plot of land in the Middle East.

Isaiah 49.3, 5-6 says, “And he said to me, You are my servant, Israel, in whom I will be glorified.’…And now the Lord says, he who formed me from the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob back to him; and that Israel might be gathered to him – for I am honored in the eyes of the Lord, and my God has become my strength – he says: ‘It is too light a thing that you should be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob and to bring back the preserved of Israel; I will make you as a light for the nations, that my salvation may reach to the end of the earth.”

Luke applies this passage to Jesus in Luke 2.29-32. Jesus is the true Israel. Jesus – not some faction of the nation, kingdom, priests, or people of earthly Israel – is the one to whom the promises of Abraham belong.

Paul explicitly says this in Galatians 3.16 – “Now the promises were made to Abraham and to his offspring. It does not say, ‘And to offpsrings,’ referring to many, but referring to one, ‘And to your offspring,’ who is Christ.”

Or, as Paul says in 2 Corinthians 1.20, “For all the promises of God find their yes in him. That is why it is through him that we utter our Amen to God for his glory.”

Remember those blessings..the blessing where God told Abraham that “I will make of you a great nation” (Genesis 12.2), “in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed” (Genesis 12.3), and “to your offspring I will give this land” (Genesis 12.7).

They belong to Jesus. Those that find their identity in Jesus, true Israel (Romans 10 and 11), are the great nation God made of Jesus.

They speak of all peoples, nations, tribes, and languages belonging to Jesus and being blessed by him.

They refer to Jesus receiving all the land on the entire earth as his.

Jacob’s name change to Israel is not important so that a country almost 3,000 years later called Israel can lay claim to the blessing God gave Abraham.

The name change is important and has its meaning in Jesus and Jesus alone.

Jesus, Believers, and the World: The True Exodus, A Story of Worship

Today’s Reading: Exodus 5-7

Exodus is the account of Moses leading Israel out of the land of Egypt. But, this story foreshadows another exodus, a greater exodus, the true exodus.

In Deuteronomy 18:15, Moses says, “The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your brothers – it is to him you shall listen.” Moses’ prophecy is fulfilled by Jesus. According to Luke 9:35, while Jesus was on the mount of transfiguration with Peter, John, and James, a voice called out from heaven, “This is my Son, my Chosen One; listen to him!”

In Exodus, Moses is a type of Jesus.

Israel is the people of God. In Genesis 46, we see that Israel was made of the 70 people that came into Egypt with Jacob. These 70 were the descendants of Abraham. They are connected to the 70 nations dispersed from the sons of Noah and represented the nations of the world that would be blessed through the promised offspring, who Paul says was really Jesus, not Isaac.

In Romans 9:6-7, Paul says, “For not all who are descended from Israel belong to Israel, and not all are children of Abraham because they are his offspring, but ‘Through Isaac shall your offspring be named.'” Just because you descend from Abraham by flesh and blood does not mean that you are a child of Abraham. Well, then, who is a child of Abraham? Paul says in Galatians 3:7, 29, “Know then that it is those of faith who are the sons of Abraham…And if you are Christ’s, then you are Abraham’s offspring, heirs according to the promise.” The true people of God, the people of the promise, are those that believe the gospel just as Abraham did.

In Exodus, Israel is a type of the believer.

What Egypt is is not as explicitly stated in the Bible, but we can infer what it represents from the whole of scripture. In Matthew 2, an angel of the Lord appears to Joseph in a dream and tells him to take Jesus and his mother to Egypt. Matthew 2:15 says, “This was to fulfill what the Lord had spoken by the prophet, ‘Out of Egypt I called my son.'” Jesus said his kingdom was not of this world. These are just a few points that help us understand what Egypt is.

In Exodus, Egypt is a type of the world.

Therefore the true exodus is Jesus leading all those that believe in him out so that they are no longer of the world and can worship in spirit and truth.

That was a rather lengthy, but I believe necessary introduction, to what the Holy Spirit immediately laid on my heart this morning as I read Exodus 5.

Moses and Aaron had gathered the elders of Israel. They spoke all the things God told them to speak and did the signs God gave them to do in front of all the people. And, the people believed and bowed their heads in worship.

At the start of Exodus 5, Moses and Aaron go to Pharaoh. They tell Pharaoh that God said, “Let my people go, that they may hold a feast to me in the wilderness.” God spoke to the ruler of the world and basically said let my people go so they can worship me. “But Pharaoh said, ‘Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice and let Israel go? I do not know the Lord, and moreover, I will not let Israel go.”

The Holy Spirit immediately brought to my mind Jesus’ conversation with Pilate just before he was crucified. Shortly before that conversation, the people proclaimed hosanna to Jesus as he entered Jerusalem. They believed he was king and worshiped him like the Israelites believed and bowed their heads to worship at the end of Exodus 4.. But, Jesus is arrested and led before Pilate, who symbolized the ruler of this world.

Jesus had been gathering people, people of Israel, to himself to worship God in spirit and in truth. When Jesus was brought before Pilate by the chief priest and elders, Pilate asked who he was and what he had done. In John 18:36, Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would have been fighting, that I might not be delivered over to the Jews. But my kingdom is not from the world.” Jesus is saying, “Let my people go.”

Pilate says, “So you are a king?” Like Pharaoh, Pilate is thinking strictly in earthly terms. He’s thinking that Jesus is a king like him, or Caesar, and he wants an earthly kingdom. In John 18:37, Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. For this purpose I was born and for this purpose I have come into the world – to bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice.” I think many read Jesus’ statement as if he was saying “I was born king.” But, I don’t think that’s what he is saying here. Jesus says to Pilate, “You say that I am king.” That’s what you say, but not what I’m saying. Jesus then tells Pilate why he was born – to bear witness to the truth. In fact, Jesus is truth and everyone who is of the truth listens to his voice. Jesus is talking about worship. He is saying, “Let my people go, that they may hold a feast to me in the wilderness.”

But, Pilate said to Jesus, “What is truth?” Pilate said exactly what Pharaoh said. “I do not know the Lord, and moreover, I will not let Israel go.”

Pilate sends Jesus to be flogged. Pilate meets with the Jews. The Jews say that Jesus declared himself to be the Son of God. Now, Pilate was afraid. So, he asked Jesus, “Where are you from?” But, Jesus didn’t answer. Clearly this angered Pilate. Pilate said, “You will not speak to me? Do you not know that I have authority to release you and authority to crucify you?” What does Pilate mean by this? I think he was telling Jesus that he has authority to take his life so Jesus better worship him. But, in John 19:11, Jesus answered, “You would have no authority over me at all unless it had been given you from above.” Jesus was saying I will not worship you, but I will worship the one in heaven who has authority over you.

Most of the rest of Exodus 5 is about Pharaoh trying to get the worship that belongs to God and how the Israelites struggled under the burdens of Pharaoh could not believe and worship as they did at the end of Exodus 4. How so?

God wanted his people to go into the wilderness a three days’ journey to have a feast before him. Three days is the time between death and life, the period of time between Jesus’ death and resurrection. God was calling his people to a new life to worship him, to believe who he is. Jesus was asked what people must do to be doing the works of God. In John 6:29, Jesus answered, “This is the work of God, that you believe in him whom he has sent.”

However, Pharaoh told Moses that by going out into the wilderness to worship he was taking the people away from their work. Moses was just trying to get them our of their burdens. Pharaoh told Moses and Israel to get back to work. Their work was to make bricks. And, Pharaoh was determined to make their work, their brick making, as difficult as he could.

So, Moses was talking about worship, believing, which is the work of God. And, Pharaoh was talking about making bricks, work, burdens. Did you know making bricks is a type of self-worship or the worship of man by man? Genesis 11:3-4 says, “Come, let us make bricks…Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be dispersed over the face of the whole earth.” Mankind wants to get worship by building his own city, his own temple, so that man can gather together to themselves.

But, I left something out of Genesis 11:3, “And they had brick for stone.” Man builds with brick. God builds with stone.

Genesis 28:18-19 says, “So early in the morning Jacob took the stone that he had put under his head and set it up for a pillar and poured oil on the top of it. He called the name of that place Bethel.” Jacob had seen a vision of a ladder with angels ascending and descending. He saw a vision of heaven and earth connected. So, he set up a stone and poured oil on it – a living stone. And, Jacob called that place Bethel – the house of God. Jacob recognized that God builds his temple, his place of worship, with stones not bricks. Man can make bricks, but he can’t make stones. Only God can make stones. And, only God can make stones live.

Jesus was the cornerstone, the chief stone, the stone that the builder’s rejected. Listen to what Peter says when we come to Jesus to worship, when we go out into the wilderness three days’ journey for a feast, “As you come to him, a living stone rejected by men but in the sight of God chosen and precious, you yourselves like living stones are being built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.” God builds his city, his temple, with living stones, men and women who believe, not bricks.

Therefore, Pharaoh wanted to build his own temple through the work of man with bricks. He wanted man’s worship. Of course, Pharaoh is a type of Satan here.

But, God, Jesus, Moses, wants a different kind of work, a work that is believing God. God does this work with living stones. I think Hebrews 11:8-10 sums it all up, “By faith Abraham obeyed when he was called to go out to a place that he was to receive as an inheritance. And he went out, not knowing where he was going. By faith he went to live in the land of promise, as in a foreign land, living in tents with Isaac and Jacob, heirs with him of the same promise. For he was looking forward to the city that has foundations, whose designer and builder is God.”

Let my people go. Let them go out. Into the wilderness. Three days. From death to life. They won’t know where they are going. But, by faith. By faith dwelling in the land of promise. A foreign land. As strangers. Not of this world. Living in tents. Sojourners passing through. Looking for the city, the temple, built by God. This is what a lifestyle of worship looks like.

Learning from Israel in 2 Kings 17

The New Testament says that all scripture was written for our learning. In the history of Israel, we can see our own personal history and the history of all peoples.

2 Kings 17 gives an interesting recounting of Israel’s history. In particular three things are repeated throughout the chapter and/or stood to me.

  1. God brought Israel out of Egypt. Egypt symbolized the world. Like Israel, God has brought out of the world all that believe in Jesus And, that is his desire for all that don’t believe yet. Because God brought us out of Egypt, he is to be worshiped. 2 Kings 17 actually says he is to be feared, or held in awe.
  2. Israel feared other gods. Even though they had been brought out of Egypt by God in great power, Israel feared other gods, the gods of the people in the lands around them. As Christians, God has brought us out of the world. But, are we still fearing other gods? Are we trying to mix the fear of these other gods with obedience to the Lord? What are the things I fear, or hold in awe? It’s as simple as looking at what I spend most of my time on. Or, what do I devote myself to that isn’t Jesus? By the way, God hates mixture. He wants us pure.
  3. God sent prophets to warn Israel. The chapter says that every prophet and every seer was sent to warn Israel that they were not fearing God or keeping his commandments and that Israel should repent. What did Israel do to these prophets? They killed them. They didn’t want to hear what they were saying. God has sent us Jesus to tell us to repent because the kingdom of God was here. Are we listening? Or do we seek to kill Jesus so we don’t have to hear what he is saying? Are we listening to those Jesus uses to speak a word of repentance to us? Or do we hate them, mock them, laugh at them, tell them they are wrong, etc.? Am I willing to listen to a word of correction that God brings however he brings it? Because in addition to the prophets, when Israel failed to listen to them, God brought them Assyria and Babylon to persecute them. Let us listen to his word so he doesn’t send us an oppressor.

Elisha, the Woman and Her Son or God, Israel and Jesus?

2 Kings 8:1-6 has a short little story about Elisha, a woman and her son. Elisha tells the woman to arise and depart with her household and sojourn wherever she can because there will be a famine for seven years. The woman obeys Elisha and goes to the land of the Philistines for seven years. When the seven years were up, she returned to the land and appealed to the king to get her house and land back. The woman appeared with her son before the king. When the king asked the woman about her son being restored to life, she told him. So, the king restored all that was hers with the produce of the land for the period she was not in it.

In this story we see Elisha as God (his name means “my God is salvation”), the woman as Israel, and her son as Jesus.

Before this story, Elisha had resurrected the woman’s son just as Jesus was resurrected, or restored to life. After Jesus was resurrected, Israel was scattered all over the world due to persecution and famine. Israel sojourned wherever it could.

The famine represents the time that Israel would be without the nourishment of bread, or the scriptures. This would last seven years, or a complete period of time, however long that would be. But, at the end of the seven years, the woman returns to her land, which I believe symbolizes repentance.

The woman appears before the king, or Israel appears before God, having repented, and asks for its land back. But, Israel didn’t appear before the king alone. Her son, Jesus, was with her. When the king asked Israel about her son, Jesus, being restored to life, she confessed it as true. Based on her confession that God is her salvation and that he restored Jesus to life, Israel gets her land back. And, not just her land, but all that it produced while she was not in it.

Certainly, we have seen some of this story unfold in history, but not all of it. The time has not been completed yet.